Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences 2024-04-04T01:04:56+02:00 Prof. Dr. Abdullah Abdulkareem Hassan Open Journal Systems <table style="height: 446px; width: 916px;" width="647"> <tbody> <tr style="height: 446px;"> <td style="width: 317.656px; height: 446px;"><img src="" alt="" width="212" height="294" /></td> <td style="width: 592.778px; height: 446px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences (TJAS)</strong> is a scientific and open access peer-reviewed, scholarly publication aiming to promote scientific Agriculture sciences and presented to researchers and academic students of Agricultural Sciences. TJAS is available for authors and readers free of - charge immediately upon publication. <br />TJAS publishes four issues per year and publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in different areas of agricultural sciences. The Tikrit University, the publisher of TJAS, Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences Journal of Agriculture, is published on behalf of the College of Agriculture and Tikrit , University.<br />TJAS Publishing publishes under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY) license. We are using Turnitin to prevent plagiarism and ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts.</p> <p>Print ISSN: 1813-1646<br />Online ISSN: 2664-0597</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Susceptibility of Cowpea varieties to infestation by Pea blue Butterfly, Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) 2023-12-02T12:38:36+01:00 Khalid Qadir Khidher <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp; A field experiment was conducted in the Grdarasha Research Station-College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences- Salahaddin University-Erbil-Iraq, to evaluate the susceptibility of four varieties of cowpea crop to infestation by pea blue butterfly,&nbsp;<em>Lampides boeticus</em>&nbsp;L. based on the infestation percentage on different growth stages of the plant including flowering stage, pod stage and the number of holes made by the pest larvae also were calculated. As well as estimating the nature and extent of damages due to pest insect were described. The varieties of cowpea used in this study were Polaris, Japan cowpea, Italy cowpea, and Safal variety. The RCBD design was used for implementing the experiment. The results showed that, the highest percentages of infestation, on the flower stage and pod stage were recorded on the cowpea variety Italy which reached 46.33% and 51.30%, while the lowest percentages were on the Safal variety which were18.52% and 24.86%, respectively, more over the highest number of holes made by the larval stage of the pest insect was recorded on variety Italy 1.99 holes/ pod, and the lowest number was recorded on variety Japan which was 1.24 holes/ pod.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Combined Effect of Biochar and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Growth and Performance in Calcareous Soil 2023-05-31T06:20:19+02:00 Samana Khdir Khwnaw Rahman <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to determine the effect of combined application of biochar and mycorrhizal fungi on wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum </em>L.) growth and performance in calcareous soil. The experiment of this study consists of sixteen treatments (two levels of mycorrhiza, two types of manures, and four levels of biochar) as a factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replicates. The results showed that Cattle 1 t.h<sup>-1</sup>+Mycorrhiza treatment produced the maximum plant height, percent N in seeds, percent protein in seeds, weight of the shoot after drying, weight 100 seed, and root length after two months of planting compared to other treatment including Poultry 1 t.h<sup>-1</sup>+Mycorrhiza. This indicates that Cattle 1 t.h.<sup>-1</sup>+Mycorrhiza has a higher effect on the performance of wheat than other treatments. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that combinations of biochar and mycorrhizal fungi have a significant effect on the growth and performance of wheat plants in calcareous soil. Therefore, Cattle1 t.h.<sup>-1</sup>+Mycorrhiza can be used by farmers to improve their wheat performance in calcareous soil in Iraq.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Improving the production and quality of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by adding biochar and ash to the casing layer 2023-12-02T13:40:20+01:00 Bnar J. Jalal Mustafa R. M. Alqaisi <p style="text-align: justify;">This investigation was implied to assess the effect of adding different rates of biochar and ash (0, 5, 10, 20 g L <sup>-1</sup> casing layer) at the casing layer on production and quality indicator (total yield, biological efficiency, earliness of pinhead and fruit body appear, dry matter and protein content of fruit body) of common mushroom (<em>Agaricus bisporus</em>). The experiment was considered as a double factorial in a complete randomized design. Each treatment replicates three-time. There were significant variances between the four rates of biochar and ash. The highest total yield (2030.7 g 10 Kg<sup>-1</sup> compost) was obtained using biochar 20 g L <sup>-1</sup> casing layer that was high rate compared with the 2009.5 g 10 Kg<sup>-1</sup> compost for the control treatment also lowest total weight in this parameter (1951.1g 10 Kg <sup>-1</sup> compost) was obtained from biochar 5 g L <sup>-1 </sup>. The best protein values (26.871%) were observed in a biochar 20 g L<sup>-1</sup> casing layer compared with the lowest rate 17.7115% which was the control, and the second value (25.085%) was observed in an Ash 20 g L<sup>-1</sup> casing layer compared with the 18.920% for the control which was the lowest value. These studies will help to determine suitable casing layer conditions and the appropriate alternative casing materials for the cultivation of <em>A. bisporus</em>.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Influence of Shading, GA3 and NPK fertilizer on the growth and development of Myrtle Myrtus communis plants. 2023-12-02T13:51:00+01:00 Hizrat Mohammed Qasim Yousif H. Hammo <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted during the period between 23<sup>th</sup> September 2021 to 1<sup>st</sup> July 2022, in the nursery of Duhok University, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Aiming to evaluate effect of the Shade (0 and 50) %, Gibberellic acid (0, 250, and 500) mg.l<sup>-1</sup> and three levels of NPK fertilizer control (0, 0, 0), low (150, 100, 75), and high (300,200,150) mg.l<sup>-1</sup> on the growth and development for Myrtle (<em>Myrtus communis</em>) plants. This experiment was performed by use randomized complete block design (RCBD). The best results include the following: 50% shade significantly increased the plant height (36.21) cm, leaf area (4.41) cm<sup>2</sup>, total chlorophyll (57.41) spad, vegetative dry weight (14.62) gm, plant growth index (9230) cm<sup>3</sup> and number of premier tricussate shoots (14.37) branch/plant compared with 0%. spray with 500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> GA<sub>3</sub> significantly increased plant height (35.58) cm, number of branches, leaf area (2.84) cm<sup>2</sup>, total chlorophyll (57.28) spad, dry weight (13.67) gm, plant growth index (8098) cm<sup>3</sup>, number of premier tricussate shoots (14.37) branch/plant. Also used NPK fertilizer caused significantly increase in all these traits, the best interaction treatment among the three factors include 50% shade with 500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> GA<sub>3 </sub>and (300,200,150) mg.l<sup>-1</sup> NPK that gave the highest significant values for the plant height (43.53) cm, leaf area (4.53) cm<sup>2</sup>, total chlorophyll (64.57) spad, vegetative dry weight (20.27) gm, plant growth index (15580) cm<sup>3 </sup>and number of premier tricussate shoots (20.67) branch/plant compared with control (0 shade, 0 GA<sup>3</sup>, (0,0, 0) mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) .</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Use of various sources of calcium in the diets of broiler and its effects on carcass and some meat quality 2023-12-02T13:55:38+01:00 Kamaran Khattab Karim Nazim Rasul Abdulla <p style="text-align: justify;">The study &nbsp;was aimed to assess the impact of adding eggshells as calcium sources in broiler diets on carcass traits, meat quality, and chemical composition ,three hundred one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly designed &nbsp;CRD . Each treatment included five replications and each replicate containing twenty birds. The dietary of first&nbsp; treatment was&nbsp; control (0% eggshell) the second and the third treatments were&nbsp; eggshell powder as a replacement for limestone at 50% and 100%, respectively. &nbsp;.The chickens were fed a basal diet during the starting and finished periods. Ten broilers were chosen randomly from each treatment group and slaughtered at &nbsp;age &nbsp;42 days to evaluate meat quality. The results showed that no significant differences (p<u>&lt;</u> 0.05) between treatments regarding pre-slaughter in live body weight, carcass weight, and percentage of each carcass cuts weight, as well as immunological organs such as the spleen and bursa. However, a substantial difference in dressing percentage was observed. Except for pH, yellowness, and chroma, no significant differences &nbsp;were noticed in drip loss, cooking loss, lightness, redness, color &nbsp;,tenderness. Meanwhile, the bird chemical composition treatments had no significant differences in moisture, protein, and ash percentages. However, there was a considerable change in fat %. Except for broilers' pH, yellowness, and chroma, the substitution of eggshell powder for limestone resulted in comparable carcass characteristics, chemical composition, and meat quality. However, there was a significantly differ in fat %. Except for broilers' pH, yellowness, and chroma, the substitution of eggshell powder for limestone resulted in comparable &nbsp;of some carcass characteristics, chemical composition, and meat quality.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Effect of chelated iron and zinc application on some growth characteristics of cauliflower plant Brassica oleracea var.botrytis in gypsiferous soil 2024-03-31T08:34:57+02:00 Ayad Y. AL- Qaisi Ayad A. AL- Tikrity <p style="text-align: justify;">Afield experiment was conducted out during Autumn agricultural season 2021-2022 at research station of soil sciences department and water resources, Agriculture collage, University of Tikrit. This study was established to investigate the effect of ground fertilizer with chelated iron and Zinc on growth characteristics of cauliflower (<em>Brassica</em> oleracea var.botrytis)&nbsp; in gypsum soil. It was carried out using randomized complete block design (RCBD). Two factors were included in this study, first factor was micronized chelated iron (Fe-EDDHA) added in three levels (0,4,8) Kg per ha<sup>-1</sup>, namely (F<sub>0</sub>, F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>) respectively, concentration of iron in this product was 6%. Second factor was micronized chelated Zinc (ZnEDTA) added in four levels (0,1,2,4) Kg per ha<sup>-1</sup>, namely (Zn<sub>0</sub>, Zn<sub>1</sub>, Zn<sub>2</sub>, Zn<sub>3</sub>) respectively, concentration of zinc in this product was 19%. Results showed that adding chelated iron to the ground in recommended quantity (Fe<sub>2</sub>)led to a significant increase in stem diameter (52.95 cm), number of leaves (27.21 leaf plant<sup>-1</sup>), plant height (80.81 cm), leaf area (66307 cm<sup>2</sup>), and relative chlorophyll (1.01 mg g<sup>-1</sup>). Results also showed that the addition of ground chelated zinc twice the recommended amount(Zn<sub>3</sub>) led to a significant increase in stem diameter amounted to (53.66 cm), number of leaves amounted to (27.15 leaf plant<sup>-1</sup>), plant height reached (82.42 cm) and leaf area reached (67224 cm<sup>2</sup>). Results of the research showed that interaction between chelated iron and zinc led to a significant increase, treatment (Zn<sub>3</sub>Fe<sub>2</sub>) excelled in stem diameter (54.06 cm), number of leaves (28.60 leaf plant<sup>-1</sup>), plant height (86.20 cm), leaf area (72830 cm<sup>2</sup>), and relative chlorophyll (1.08 mg g<sup>-1</sup>).</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Influence of peatmoss and polymer on moisture characteristic curve of soils with different gypsum and clay contents 2024-03-31T09:26:18+02:00 Raghad B. Al-Asafi Isam Kh. Al-Hadeethi <p style="text-align: justify;">To determine the hydraulic properties of several soils with varying clay and gypsum contents and treatments with peat moss and polymer, a laboratory experiment was done. Gypsum ratios varied from 410 g kg-1 to 46 g kg-1, while clay ratios ranged from 0 to 435 g kg-1. Two soils were employed, one having 410 g kg-1 of gypsum and the other containing 435 g kg-1 of clay. Peat moss and a polymer were used to treat the five soils. Three soaking and drying cycles were performed on soil that had been treated with conditioners by packing it into plastic columns that were 5 cm in diameter and 25 cm high with a bulk density of 1.3 mcg m<sup>3</sup>. The experiment's goal was to improve the ability of gypsiferous soils to retain water. The moisture characteristic curves were computed using the connection between the volumetric moisture content () and the matric tension, which ranged between 0.1 and 1500 kPa. The results revealed that the values of for the study's soil and treatment methods decreased as matric tension increased, and the discrepancies were more pronounced at low tensions. With rising gypsum and falling clay, the values of decreased. As gypsum was raised from 46 to 410 g kg-1, the values of the available water reduced from 0.276 cm3 cm-3 to 0.191 cm3 cm-3. The addition of peat moss (1%), polymer 1 (2%), and a combination of the two clearly increased the amount of water that was accessible while also changing the amounts of clay and gypsum in all treatments.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Effect of Gamma Rays on Growth, Yield and Yield Components Eight Traits of Flax Genotypes Linum usitatissimum L 2023-12-02T13:34:54+01:00 Saad Edan Abdullah Al_Raheem Ahmed Hawas Abdullah Anees <p style="text-align: justify;">A field experiment was carried out at agricultural field in al-Alam district\Sallahiddin Governorate during 2020-2021 season to study the Creation of genetic variations in the flax crop as a result of gamma rays. The study factors included four levels of gamma rays, which were 0, 9, 18 and 27 Gy and six genotypes of the flax crop, which were Sakha1, Sakha2, Sakha3, Giza8, Syrian and Poloni, use a completely randomized block design with split plot system and was used three replications, traits studied were Duration to 50% flowering &nbsp;and Duration of days to maturity, Plant height, Leaves ratio, Number of vegetative branches, Number of capsules Number of seeds, 1000 seeds weight, Plant yield and seed yield.The results of the study indicated that gamma rays had a significant effect on all studied traits, comparison treatment gave a lower value from the number of days to flowering 50% of plants and days to maturity (110.24) and (155.05) days, respectively, while the plants irradiated with the level 9 Gy recorded a significant superiority in the percentage of leaves (21.46) %, while the non-irradiated plants outperformed in the rest of the studied traits. the genotype Sakha1 gave the highest average mean in characteristics of number of vegetative branches (3.63) branch plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of capsules per plant (54.35) capsule plant<sup>-1</sup>, individual plant yield (2.22) gm plant<sup>-1</sup>, and seeds yield (433.63) kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. As for the interaction, it was significant through the non-irradiated Sakha1 genotype, which gave the highest value of the characteristics of the number of capsules per plant, the number of seeds per capsule, individual plant yield and total seed yield (62.22) capsule plant<sup>-1</sup> 9.96 seed capsule<sup>-1</sup> (2.89) g plant<sup>-1</sup> (578.60) kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Effect of adding natural and synthetic antioxidants to broiler drinking water as antistressor on productivity, antioxidant statues and hematological traits under heat stress 2024-03-31T19:20:50+02:00 Mahbuba A. Mustafa Soran A. Othman <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted to explore the benefit of adding synthetic and natural antioxidants nutritional additives in drinking water to increase broiler resistance to heat stress in the hot summer climate on productive performance, and physiological status. A total of 600 chicks of broiler (Ross-308) were distributed into ten treatments, each treatment with three replicates of 20 chicks. The treatments of study are: T0: (Positive control: drinking water without adding-DW)- without heat stress, treatments exposed to heat stress: [T1: (Negative control: drinking water without adding-DW, but exposed to heat stress), T2: (100 mg BHT/1 L DW) (BHT – butylhydroxytoluene: synthetic antioxidant), T3: (100 mg vit E/1 L DW) (synthetic antioxidant), T4: (200 mg saffron/1 L DW) (natural antioxidant, T5: (200 mg curcumin/1 L DW), T6: (100 mg saffron+ 50 mg BHT/1 L DW), T7: (100 mg saffron+50 mg vit E/1 L DW), T8: (100 mg curcumin+ 50 mg BHT/1 L DW), T9: (100 mg curcumin+ 50 mg vit E/1 L DW)]. Data of the study analyses and display that the synthetic and natural antioxidants nutritional additives had significantly decreases in the temperature of body parts surface (head, back, under wings, cloaca), general body temperature, mortality%, Malondialdehyde (MDA), heat shock proteins (HSP-40 and HSP -70), Corticosterone hormone concentration in the blood serum and heterophiles: lymphocytes (H/L) ratio. However, body weight, body weight gain, Production index (PI), feasibility (economic profit), water intake (WI), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px), super oxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Newcastle (ND), Infectious bursal (IBD) diseases and Infection bronchitis virus (IB), so feed conversion ratio (FCR) had significantly improved in the all treatments of water additive in the treatments of positive control T0 compared with the negative control T1. Whereas, feed intake had non-significant differences among all treatments of the study. In all traits of the study natural antioxidant additives: saffron and curcumin additives seen superiorly</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Effect of Sowing Date on the Growth and Yield of Three Cultivars of Kale Brassica oleracea L .var.acephala 2023-12-02T13:23:21+01:00 Amina Saad Hammoud Hassan Al-Douri Ammar Hashim Saeed <p>The experiment was carried out at the research station of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape / College of Agriculture / Tikrit University, during the agricultural season 2022-202,&nbsp; to study the effect of sowing date on the growth and yield of three cultivars of kale. The experiment consisted two factors. The first factor included two sowing dates viz, 15/9/2021 and 1/10/2021, while second factors included three cultivars of kale namely: NeroDiTosccana, Tronchuda and Red Ursa. The experiment was laid out according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with a split plot system With three replicares.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed that, the sowing date 1/10 had highest values in percentage of germination and germination speed, while sowing date 1/10 recorded highest values in plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, plant yield and total yield 44.87 cm, 28.62 mm, 2267.5 cm2 plant-1, 529.65 g plant-1 and 17.71 tons ha-1, respectively. Meanwhile,&nbsp; Nero Di Tosccana cultivar gave significant increment in percentage of germination and plant height, whereas Red Ursa cultivar increased significantly in&nbsp; stem diameter, leaf area, plant yield and total yield 31.03 mm, 1716.9 cm2 plant-1, 446.99 g plant-1 and&nbsp; 14.99 ton ha-1 respectively. On the other hand, the interaction treatment between sowing date 15/9 and Nero Di Tosccana cultivar had highest values in percentage of germination and plant height. Whereas, sowing date 1/10 and Red Ursa cultivar recorded highest value in germination speed. But, sowing date 15/9 with Red Ursa cultivar gave significant increment in stem diameter, plant yield and total yield. While, the interaction treatment between sowing date 15/9 and Tronchuda cultivar increased significantly in leaf area.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Evaluation of the efficacy of Decise and Rosmarinus afficinalis oil with Brevibacillus laterosporus and their mixtures against the larvae of the cotton thistle worm Earias insulana (Boisd) in vitro 2024-03-31T22:31:17+02:00 Salih khalaf Mohammed Sh Mansor Abdullah A Hassan <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">انطباع </span></span></strong><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">_</span></span></strong></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">دراسة لتقييم مدى توافق زيت نبات إكليل الجبل والفطر </span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">R.afficinalis</span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> و </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">B.</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> laterosporus </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">مع </span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">يرقات</span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> دودة </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">القطن </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">الشوك </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">E.</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> زيادة أعداد المستعمرات البكتيرية حيث بلغت 18.26 و 30.43 خلية بكتيرية / مل بالمبيد للتركيز الموصى به وأقل من الموصى به 3.47 و 25.21 و 34.78 و 47.82 و 59.13 خلية بكتيرية / مل مع زيت الإكليل لتركيزات (1000 ، 2000 ، 3000 ، 4000 ، 5000) مجم / لتر تفاعل علاج البكتيريا فقط بتركيز 1.9 × </span><sup><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">10</span></sup></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">مبيدات الآفات بتركيز 400 ملجم / لتر وزيت إكليل الجبل بتركيز 5000 ملجم / لتر أعطت أعلى معدلات وفيات بلغت 63.33 و 66.66 و 53.33٪ على التوالي بعد خمسة أيام من المعاملة ، تليها نفس التركيزات أعلاه. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">بمعدل وفيات 70.00 و 80.00 و 63.33٪ على التوالي بعد سبعة أيام من العلاج بينما لم يسجل معدل وفيات لعلاج البكتريا وزيت إكليل الجبل بتركيز 1.9 × 10 </span></span><sup><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">6</span></span></sup><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">و 1000 مجم / لتر بعد يوم واحد. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">أعطى تفاعل مخاليط تركيز المبيد مع البكتيريا عند 400 مجم / لتر والمبيد بالزيت 400 مجم / لتر وزيت إكليل الجبل مع البكتيريا عند 5000 مجم / لتر أعلى معدلات موت 90.00 و 93.33 و 76.66 ٪ ، على التوالي ، يليها تركيز 400 مجم / لتر من المبيد مع البكتيريا. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">و 400 ملجم / لتر بالزيت و 5000 ملجم / لتر للزيت بالبكتيريا والتي بلغت 70.00 و 73.33 و 66.66٪ على التوالي ، بينما كانت أقل نسبة نفوق بتركيزات 200 ملجم / لتر للمبيد بالبكتيريا والزيت. و 1000 ملجم / لتر للمستخلص مع البكتيريا حيث بلغت 6.66 و 10.00 و 0.00٪ على التوالي. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">أظهرت نتائج المطابقة أن زيت ديزاين وإكليل الجبل ، R.</span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">B. laterosporus</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> . </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">، بينما زادت نتائج معدلات وفيات الحشرات مع مدة التعرض خلال سبعة أيام لكل من العلاجات وخليطها ، وهذا يعطي كفاءة جيدة للمبيد والزيوت مع البكتيريا تجاه حشرة E.insulana التي تدخل </span></span><em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">في</span></span></em><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> الحديث اتجاهات الإدارة المتكاملة للآفات.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE A simple Preservation Method of Bird Feces for DNA Analysis: A Case Study on Chicken and Quail 2024-03-31T22:31:14+02:00 Ahmed Khalid Ahmedkhalid76700@TU.EDU.IG Nagam Khudhair Jacob Njaramba Ngatia Le Zhang Yan Chun Xu <p>Standardized methods for fecal sample collection and safe long-distance transportation for DNA extraction are yet to be identified. We compared four different preservation methods for bird fecal samples: storage in 75% and 100% ethanol, freezing at −20°C, and immersing in 100% ethanol for 3 weeks followed by drying the samples for more than 60 days and transporting them to another country. Our objectives were to quantify the DNA concentration and amplify a fragment of the gene from each sample successfully using the primers mcb398 and mcb869 through DNA barcoding. Our data showed that the method of sample preservation used affected the DNA concentration and amplification. The best results were achieved when the samples were preserved in 100% ethanol. The samples were then dried for storage prior to further processing. This method is inexpensive and safe for long-distance transportation and at airports.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Evaluating the Efficiency of Potassium Fertilizer Sources and Levels on Sesame Growth and Yield in Two Different Gypsum Soils 2024-03-31T22:46:25+02:00 Firas Ahmed Alsajri Mohammed Farhan Nashmi Hilai <p>To investigate the effect of potassium fertilizer sources and level on sesame growth and yield in two different gypsum soils, two experiments were applied throughout the summer of 2022. The experiments included three factors, which were sources of potassium, potassium sulfate (K<sub>K2SO4</sub>) and potassium chloride (K<sub>KCL</sub>), potassium levels, 0 (K<sub>00</sub>), 75 (K<sub>75</sub>), 150 (K<sub>150</sub>), and 300 (K<sub>300</sub>) kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, and levels of gypsum in the soil, 6.02 (Soil<sub>06.02</sub>) and 15.87 (Soil<sub>15.87</sub>) %. Completely Random Block Design (CRBD) with three replications was used to apply the experiments. The results indicated that K<sub>K2SO4</sub> significantly impacted plant height (18%), plant dry weight (8%), branch no (11%), capsules no. (5%), 1000 seeds weight (13%), yield (13%), and oil percentage (9%) compared with K<sub>KCL</sub>. Similarly, potassium at K<sub>300</sub> was significantly higher compared with the other potassium levels. Also, gypsum Soil<sub>15.87</sub> significantly impacted plant height (11%), dry weight (11%), capsules no. (5%), 1000 seeds weight (19%), yield (11%), and oil percentage (12%) compared with gypsum soil with 6%. The interactions between the two study factors and among the three study factors effected significantly all the study traits. These results will be beneficial for sesame production and management in the Saladin area, Iraq.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Effect of Molecular Substitution of Oats and Chia Powder for Animal Fats on Chemical Indicators and Physical Properties in the Manufacture of Freeze-Preserved Beef Burgers 2024-03-31T23:18:28+02:00 Yasser Al-Salam Mohammed J. Mohammed Hani Sabbar Ayed <p>The study aimed to find out the effect of molecular substitution of some vegetable sources, namely oatmeal and chia, instead of animal fat, on the manufacture and preservation of low-fat burger patties stored by freezing at a temperature of (-18 ± 2 C) during the storage period for a period of (60) days and follow-up of their characteristics during the storage period by (1, 30, 60) days during which the chemical characteristics were monitored, which included (pH, peroxide number, and percentage of free fatty acids), as well as follow-up on the qualitative characteristics, and compared the factory burger with the commercial one Available in the markets. The burger was made from 80% lean veal and 20% beef fat, which is the standard treatment. The fat was replaced with 50% oatmeal and 50% chia powder for the manufacture of the beef burger. It was also observed a significant decrease in the peroxide values and the percentage of free fatty acids for the replacement treatments compared to the control treatment and the commercial Berger treatment. The results indicated that the percentage of water retention ability, cooking yield, and the percentage of weight loss during cooking increased in the replacement treatments compared to the control treatment. The results also showed a clear and remarkable improvement for all the technological characteristics under study. Therefore, the study recommends the use of oatmeal and chia powder as a substitute for animal fats in the manufacture of burgers.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Using the kinetic approach for the adsorption of base ions (Ca, Mg, Na, K) by the calm flow method in some soils in the northern of Iraq 2023-06-05T08:52:11+02:00 Karman Qadir Muhammad A J Al-Obaidi <p><strong>Abstract.</strong>&nbsp;Four soils were selected from northern Iraq, within the ranks (Mollisols, Inceptisols) from the provinces of Dohuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah from different agricultural fields from the root zone (0-0.30 m). Their physicochemical and mineral properties were estimated to study thermally isotropic adsorption by the calm flow method of soil columns using an electrolytic solution. At concentrations of (3) mmol charge.L<sup>-1</sup>, containing Ca, Mg, K, and Na ions in two repetitions at a constant temperature of approximately 298 ± 2 K. Stabilization filters were collected in which the ions were estimated according to the coefficients. The results indicated that the reactions ranged from medium alkaline to medium acidic. (6.7- (7.8), unaffected by salinity (1.44 - 0.29) dS.m<sup>-1</sup> with an ion exchange capacity between (22.43 - (33.9 Cmolc.Kg<sup>-1</sup>) and is calcareous soil due to its high content of total carbonate minerals (-112)<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; .In addition to the calcareous origin material, and it has a high clay content (304-534)<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; with the predominance of smectite, chlorite, Ilite, kaolinite and Ilite clay minerals, the nature of ion exchange using the kinetic entrance of adsorption showed a clear effect of the porous fats and the contact time of the electrolyte solution on the adsorbed quantities depending on the type of soil. Show the mathematical description of the process of arranging the kinetic equations according to their validity as follows: Power &gt; First order &gt; Parabolic &gt; Elovage &gt; Zero order</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Estimating the economic efficiency of potato varieties grown in the fall season 2021 (Baghdad Governorate - Al-Nasr and Al-Salam district - an applied model) 2023-07-08T11:07:36+02:00 Mustafa M. Alzobaee Hassan T. Al-Samurai <p>The research aims to estimate the economic efficiency and estimate the amount of waste and the deficit in the use of production resources for potato varieties grown in the autumn season 2021 within Baghdad governorate using the data envelopment analysis method(DEA), The research relied on cross-sectional data collected randomly, including 181 farms, The results of the technical efficiency according to the stability of the capacity returns showed that the Redlove variety achieved the highest average efficiency (0.97), while according to the variable capacity returns the Paradise variety achieved the highest average efficiency (0.98), while the Ghalia variety achieved the highest average efficiency (0.99) according to the capacity efficiency, The results also showed that Redlove and Fuji cultivars achieved the highest average economic efficiency of (0.91, 0.90), respectively, Among the results of the study is also the existence of an excess in the use of production elements, foremost of which is the element of seeds, The study recommends the necessity of benefiting from the experience of potato farmers in cultivating the crop, especially cultivars (Redolph Hamra, Paradiso and Ghalia), and directing farmers towards the use of productive elements in the quantities that achieve economic efficiency and their components, and not to waste in the use of these elements.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Temporal and Spatial Variation of Agricultural Drought and Desertification using Spectral Indices in Salah Al-Din Governorate 2024-04-01T01:29:56+02:00 Ali H. Hummadi Ayad A.Khalaf <p>The aim of study to time series analysis of agricultural drought and desertification using Spectral Indices and Landsat Images. A time series of satellite images (TM and OLI) were coducted for the period 1990 to 2022. The located at coordinate 34°52'29.386"N and 43°26'15.703" E and the area study is (33.98) km2. The (18) eighteen of satellite images were selected and then image processing was carried out using ERDAS imagen Ver 15 and ArcGIS 10.6. The spectral indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Land Surface Temprature (LST), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), and Vegetation Health Idex (VHI) were calculated. The regression and correlation coefficient between rainfall and spectral indices were determined using SPSS programm. The result show that VHI at 1990, 2000 and 2010 are sever drought class and its area 63.66, 57.63 and 63.85% respectively. In addition, the simple linear regression and correlation coefficient were positive between a rainfall and spectral indices reach ≥ 0.70. The years 1998, 2008, 2013 and 2022 were suffering from sever drought and desertification compared with 2006, 2016 and 2019, respectively.&nbsp;</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Studying the cumulative vigor response index of morpho-physiological, quality, and yield-related traits of wheat cultivars using planting dates 2024-03-30T23:51:20+01:00 Salah Hameed Jumaa Iqtdar Khudair Al-mafraji Abdullah Hassn Mohammed Firas Ahmed Alsajri Saroj Kumar Sah Naqeebullah Kakar Chathurika Wijewardana Bhupinder Singh <p style="text-align: justify;">Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L) is one of the major staple food crops consumed globally. Nonetheless, the cultivation of wheat is influenced by various environmental factors, with the planting date being significantly impacted by the effects of climate change. Addressing these changes could involve evaluating wheat genotypes to identify appropriate planting dates. A phenotypic screening experiment was conducted in the field crop station of Agriculture College of Tikrit University to determine the suitable planting time for wheat cultivars under local environmental conditions during 2022-23. Several morpho-physiological, quality, and yield traits were measured. Factorial experiment using spilt plot through randomized completely block design (RCBD). was used with three replications. The five planting dates (5-10, 25-10, 15-11, 5-12, and 25-12) were considered as the main plot, and the eight wheat cultivars (Ipaa99, Al-Rasheed, Al-Baraka, Sham6, Tammuz2, Al-Hashimiya, Al-Noor, and Al-Adnanieh) as sub-main plot. Data were used to calculate the Individual, Cumulative, and Total Vigor Response Indices (IRI, CRI &amp; TRI). Cultivars were classified into different categories using total cumulative early or late planting date vigor response index values (TRI-e) or (TRI-l) and standard deviation (SD). The (TRI-e) values ranged from 36.07 (sensitive) for the cultivar Al-Baraka to 39.13 (tolerant) for the cultivar Al-Hashimiya. However, the (TRI-l) values ranged from 36.59 (sensitive) for the cultivar Al-Noor to 39.52 (tolerant) for the cultivar Al-Hashimiya. The correlation coefficient (r<sup>2</sup>) between the (TRI-e) and cumulative very early/early planting date vigor response index was positively correlated (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.70 for very early planting date (5-Oct) and r<sup>2</sup> = 0.60 for early planting date (25-Oct). Furthermore, 76% of the total variation in the (TRI-l) was explained by the cumulative very late planting date vigor response index (CRI-vl) while just 49% of the total variation was explained by the cumulative late planting date vigor response index (CRI-l). Based on those results, wheat producers could select either tolerant cultivars for early planting or tolerant cultivars for late planting to maximize wheat production in their specific growing environments including planting dates.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE A Relationship of genetic Polymorphisms of FADS2 gene in some productive traits of Holstein cows in Iraq 2024-04-01T02:03:05+02:00 Thaaer Abdullah Khaleel Dhafer S. Abdullah Hadeel A. Omear <p>&nbsp;The research was conducted at the Greater Khalis Cows Station in Diyala Governorate and the central laboratory of the College of Agriculture - Tikrit University for the period from 12/13/2020 to 2/1/2022, on a sample of 63 Holstein cows (dairy), with the aim of extracting the genetic material and identifying the genotypes polymorphism of the gene (FADS2) and the relationship of these genotypes to the characteristics of milk production and its components, as well as the study of the distribution ratios of its structures in the herd, the frequency of the obtained alleles, and the calculation of the chi-square value (χ2). Where the distribution percentage of the genotypes of the FADS2 gene in the cow sample studied was 25.40, 60.32 and 14.28 for the genotypes AA, AG and GG, respectively, the frequency of the A allele was 0.56, while the frequency of the G allele was 0.44 according to the analysis of the FADS2 gene in the study current. The effect of the FADS2 genotypes on the proportions of milk components was significant (P&lt;0.05), as cows with the hybrid genotype AG achieved the highest averages in the ratios of (non-fat solids, protein, lactose), which amounted to (7.79 ± 0.15), (2.85 ± 0.06) and (4.19 ± 0.09) respectively, while cows with a GG genotype gave the lowest averages for the mentioned traits respectively, which amounted to (7.34 ± 0.22), (2.67 ± 0.08) and (3.94 ± 0.13)%, for the FADS2 gene for the studied samples. It can be concluded from the study of genetic variation of the FADS2 gene that it is possible to develop plans for genetic improvement in milk-producing cows.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Inhibitory Activity of Aloe vera plant Extract (Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria) Against the Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Diarrhea Infections 2024-02-04T21:29:14+01:00 Farah Alobedde Karkaz M. Thalj <p>The current study aimed to isolate bacterial species from people suffering from diarrhea, diagnose them, and prepare the aqueous extract of Aloe vera plant, and ferment it by the locally-isolated Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria, and determining the presence of phenolic compounds before and after fermentation.<br>The antioxidant activity was estimated using the FRAP method and the inhibitory activity against bacterial isolates causing diarrhea was also determined. <br>The results showed that the pathogenic bacterial species causing diarrhea were Salmonella, E. coli. Shigella and Proteus.<br>The lactobacillus bacteria isolated and diagnosed from local dairy samples was Lactobacillus plantarum that was used to ferment Aloe vera plant extract. The types of phenolic compounds identified and estimated in Aloe Vera extract were Chlorogenic acid, Caffiec acid, Cinnamic acid, Gallic acid, Coumaric acid, Vitexin and Syringic acid.<br>The highest antioxidant activity was (48), which was found to be after fermentation, compared to its value before fermentation, which was (39). It was also shown that the highest inhibitory activity efficiency of the fermented Aloe vera extract was against pathogenic isolates from Non-fermented extrac</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Estimating the levels of technical and economic efficiency of yellow corn crop farms in Kirkuk Governorate - Hawija district (a model) For the production season 2022 AD 2024-04-01T00:12:41+02:00 Manar Hamad Maher M. Shabib <p>The study aimed to estimate the technical, specialized and economic efficiency of the yellow maize crop in Kirkuk Governorate - Hawija based on the data envelope analysis (DEA) technique. Its percentage in the community is for (70) farms, and using the program (Deap) to analyze efficiency according to the data envelope method. DEA data envelope analysis in two directions according to the concept of stability and change of return to capacity, which allows estimating technical efficiency and capacity efficiency, and using the same method, specialized efficiency and economic efficiency were extracted. The production process now has an 85% technical efficiency rate on average. The standard rate technical effectiveness obtained (95%) taking into account the change in return to capacity. The results showed that a certain percentage of farms had reached pricing efficiency (AE) at a level of (100%) varied depending on the cost function variables,they are (4) farmers, and the average rate of economic efficiency (EE) ((82%), and the study concluded that the farmers of the yellow corn crop do not achieve reaching the optimal size of production, and this means that there is a drift from the optimal size of the crops of the study sample. In the light of the results that have been reached, the study recommended taking advantage of the efficiency indicators obtained through the data envelope model.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE Effect of irrigation interval on water consumption, water use efficiency, growth and yield of rice in two area of Sulaymani governorate 2024-04-04T01:04:56+02:00 Salahaddin Abdulqadir Aziz Saman Mahmood Karim Zhalla Yadgar Taha <p style="text-align: justify;">The different of locations (which has different in soil and water quality) and irrigation interval has an important influence on water use efficiency and rice crop yield to determine the effects of different irrigation water management on yield and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in two different locations soils and water quality, the two-field experiments were conducted on silty clay loam and silty clay soil, in earthen and western Suleimani province of Kurdistan-Iraq The experiment was a complete randomized design with a factorial arrangement of treatments with three replications. The main treatment was Irrigation interval (full irrigation (D<sub>1</sub>), one day (D<sub>2</sub>), two days (D<sub>3</sub>), and three-day irrigation (D<sub>4</sub>)) The depth irrigation were 939, 811, 726 and 681 mm, respectively for qaragol, while for chalax the depth irrigation were 980, 821, 749 and 722 mm respectively.&nbsp; The sub- treatment was, Qaragol (L<sub>1</sub>) and chalax (L<sub>2</sub>) locations respectively, the results showed that the effects of irrigation interval and locations and their interaction on rice grain yield and water use efficiency were significant at 5%. The highest grain yield (6263&nbsp;&nbsp; Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) belonged to the (L<sub>2</sub>) location and the lowest grain yield (5823.3 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) belonged to (L<sub>1</sub>) in Qaragol location. And the highest water use efficiency 8.547 in Qaragol location belongs to the (D<sub>4</sub>) and the lowest water use efficiency&nbsp;&nbsp; 6.387 increasing of water use efficiency (D<sub>1</sub> vs. D<sub>4</sub>) caused a 29.5% improvement in water use efficiency.&nbsp; The irrigation schedule can be planned to save water without considerable reduction of crop yield</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE