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Ahmed Khalid
Nagam Khudhair
Jacob Njaramba Ngatia
Le Zhang
Yan Chun Xu


Standardized methods for fecal sample collection and safe long-distance transportation for DNA extraction are yet to be identified. We compared four different preservation methods for bird fecal samples: storage in 75% and 100% ethanol, freezing at −20°C, and immersing in 100% ethanol for 3 weeks followed by drying the samples for more than 60 days and transporting them to another country. Our objectives were to quantify the DNA concentration and amplify a fragment of the gene from each sample successfully using the primers mcb398 and mcb869 through DNA barcoding. Our data showed that the method of sample preservation used affected the DNA concentration and amplification. The best results were achieved when the samples were preserved in 100% ethanol. The samples were then dried for storage prior to further processing. This method is inexpensive and safe for long-distance transportation and at airports.


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Khalid, A., Khudhair, N., Ngatia, J. N., Zhang, L., & Xu , Y. C. (2024). A simple Preservation Method of Bird Feces for DNA Analysis: A Case Study on Chicken and Quail. Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 24(1), 148–155.


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