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Sazar Noraldeen
Sabiha Mustafa
Asmaa Ahmed


The study aimed to investigate the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation on the growth and development; of three plant species: Petunia hybrida, Antirrhinum majus, and Dianthus chinensis. as well as heavy metals in soil.  The study measured various parameters such as shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, flower numbers, root and plant length, flower diameter, leaves number, and petiole length. Results showed a significant increase in shoot fresh weight 10.74 g, root fresh weight1.77g, flower numbers12.3, root length18.78cm, plant length73 cm, and flower diameter 4.3 cm, as compared to the control. A similar trend was observed in Antirrhinum majus, where mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in significantly higher values for foliage fresh weight 37.43g, root fresh weight 10.47g, flower numbers19, root length 22.67, plant length75.67, and leaves number 34, as compared to the control. In Dianthus chinensis, mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in significantly higher values for shoot fresh weight 6.83 g, root fresh weight 3.17g, flower numbers16.67, root length15.33cm, and petiole length 2.2cm, as compared to the control. The study also investigated the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on leaf growth and development and found that it had a positive effect on leaf area, length, width, and aspect ratio. Furthermore, the study measured the concentration of various heavy metals in the soil and found that mycorrhizal inoculation had a significant effect on the concentration of some elements in the soil. These findings highlight the potential benefits of mycorrhizal inoculation in plant growth and development.


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Noraldeen, S., Mustafa, S., & Ahmed, A. (2023). Response of three kinds of winter ornamental plants to mycorrhiza fungus. Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 23(2), 62–71.