Main Article Content

Yasser Al-Salam
Mohammed J. Mohammed
Hani Sabbar Ayed


The study aimed to find out the effect of molecular substitution of some vegetable sources, namely oatmeal and chia, instead of animal fat, on the manufacture and preservation of low-fat burger patties stored by freezing at a temperature of (-18 ± 2 C) during the storage period for a period of (60) days and follow-up of their characteristics during the storage period by (1, 30, 60) days during which the chemical characteristics were monitored, which included (pH, peroxide number, and percentage of free fatty acids), as well as follow-up on the qualitative characteristics, and compared the factory burger with the commercial one Available in the markets. The burger was made from 80% lean veal and 20% beef fat, which is the standard treatment. The fat was replaced with 50% oatmeal and 50% chia powder for the manufacture of the beef burger. It was also observed a significant decrease in the peroxide values and the percentage of free fatty acids for the replacement treatments compared to the control treatment and the commercial Berger treatment. The results indicated that the percentage of water retention ability, cooking yield, and the percentage of weight loss during cooking increased in the replacement treatments compared to the control treatment. The results also showed a clear and remarkable improvement for all the technological characteristics under study. Therefore, the study recommends the use of oatmeal and chia powder as a substitute for animal fats in the manufacture of burgers.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-Salam, Y., Mohammed , M. J., & Ayed, H. S. (2024). Effect of Molecular Substitution of Oats and Chia Powder for Animal Fats on Chemical Indicators and Physical Properties in the Manufacture of Freeze-Preserved Beef Burgers. Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences, 24(1), 170–179.


Al-Taie, Munir Abboud Jassim. 1987. Meat and fish technology. Basra Press. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Iraq.

Nam, K. C., & Ahn, D. U. (2003). Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on the color of irradiated ground beef. Journal of food science, 68(5), 1686-1690. ‏ DOI:

Karwowska, M., & Dolatowski, Z. J. (2007). The effect of natural antioxidants on the oxidative processes in beef. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, 6(1), 17-25. ‏

Olaoye, O. A., & Onilude, A. A. (2010). Investigation on the potential application of biological agents in the extension of shelf life of fresh beef in Nigeria. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 26, 1445-1454. ‏ DOI:

Kalalou, I.; Faid, M. and Ahomi, A. T. (2004). Extending the shelf life of fresh minced camel meat at ambient temperature by Lactobacillus delbruekii sub sp. Delbruekii. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 7: 251-246. DOI:

Zaki, E. F. (2018). Impact of adding chia seeds (Salvia hispanica) on the quality properties of camel burger “Camburger” during cold storage. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(3), 1356-1363. ‏ DOI:

Brewer, S. (2007). The chemistry of beef flavor: Executive summary. Natl. Cattlemen’s Beef Assoc. 16. ‏

da Silva Felix, T. M., de Carvalho, F. A. L., Ramos, E. J. N., Ferreira, B. J. M., de Souza Rodrigues, R. T., & Queiroz, M. A. Á. (2021). Replacement meat by commercial flours on physicochemical and sensory properties of low-fat lamb burgers. Research, Society and Development, 10(14), e560101421792-e560101421792. ‏ DOI:

Pearson, D.; Egan, H.; Kirk, R. S. and Sawyer, R. (1981). Chemical analysis of food. Longman Scientific and Technical New York.

Harrigan, F., W. C. McCance and E. Margaret (1976). Laboratory methods in food and dairy microbiology. Academic Press-London-New-York. San Francisco.

APHA (American Public Health Association) (1984). Compendium of method for microbiological examination of food. 2nd ed., M. L. Speek (ed). Washington, D. C.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11(1): 1-42. ‏ DOI:

SAS, 2010. Statistical Analysis System; User's Guide. Statistical. Version 9.1th edition. SAS. Inst. Inc. Cary. N.C. USA.

Al-Ali. F. R. M. (2017). Preparation of low-fat roast beef Burker and study of its qualitative characteristics during the period of freezing storage. Master Thesis. faculty of Agriculture. Albasrah university.

Al-Musawi, A. B, H. J. (1995). The manufacture of Al-Burker from camel meat and the effect of freezing storage periods on its chemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties, PhD thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Basra.

Ibrahim A. A., M. (2018). The effect of manufacturing processes on the antioxidant activity measured by three methods for some types of grains and their treatments. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 56(2), 613-628. DOI:

Makky. Ghaida A. (2021). The effect of adding alcoholic extract of pumpkin seeds on the chemical and qualitative properties of refrigerated camel meat. International Conference on Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture (ICBAA), Benha University, 8 April 2021, Egypt (Conference Online).

da Silva Marineli, R., Moraes, É. A., Lenquiste, S. A., Godoy, A. T., Eberlin, M. N., & Maróstica Jr, M. R. (2014). Chemical characterization and antioxidant potential of Chilean chia seeds and oil (Salvia hispanica L.). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 59(2), 1304-1310. ‏ DOI:

Zanganeh, B. S. R. and Al-Shammari, J. S. H. (2016). The effect of partial replacement of some plant sources on the qualitative and sensory characteristics of perker patties made from aged goose meat. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1100-1089: (4)4. DOI:

Al-Dori. Naseer M. F. M. (2020). Effect of adding sunflower and pumpkin seed powder and meat quality on the qualitative characteristics of pastrami and bulgur made from veal and chicken meat, PhD thesis, Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Tikrit.